The Mediterranean biome is also called as sclerophyll ecosystem or biome because of the development of special feature and characteristics in the dominant trees and shrubs to adapt to the typical environmental conditions of the Mediterranean climates (dry summer or wet winter).
The area covered by Mediterranean biome is quite small compared to other biomes. It covers only around 3% of Earth’s total land area.
The Mediterranean biome has developed between 30° N-40°S (sometime up to 45° ) latitudes in both the hemispheres in the western parts of the continents. It has a climate classified as Cs on the Köppen scale.
Summer temperatures of 30 ° C are common, with temperatures of 5 ° C or less in winter. Rainfall is in the range 350 to 800 mm per year.
Cambisols are common in the Mediterranean biome and represent and early stage of weathering. They form in a weakly acid environment (pH about 6), where ferromagnesian minerals begin to show incipient hydrolysis.
The Mediterranean vegetation period lasts for five to none months. During summer periods Mediterranean biome regions experience subtropical anticyclones, with correspondingly low rainfall.
In winter, in contrast, they experience low pressure levels and high rates of precipitation.
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